Off-Broadway Improv & Musical Comedy Theater


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Improv Concepts & A Glossary of Terms                  

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YES AND (YES &) Rule Number One: “YES AND”. Rule Number Two: When in doubt refer to rule number one. Accept your scene partner’s offer and then advance the scene with your next response; Agree with every offer offer; then, respond with detailed offers that build and support your fellow players offers.. Conceptual NOs and BUTs stop the action. Beginning students often go for the joke or sell out their partner by negating offers, thus bringing scenes to a screeching halt.


JUSTIFY EVERYTHING Find a solution for every offer and every element introduced in the scene. Think you made a mistake? No problem. Just find a way to justify it.


IN THE MOMENT Be prepared, Listen and focus on the current moment. Listen and Respond. Planning ahead takes you out of the moment resulting in many missed opportunities and often leading to forcing your concept of the scene and negating or selling out your fellow players. Be flexible enough to move with the scene.


GIVE & TAKE Improvised dialog going back and fourth between the players with a balance exchange of ideas. AVOID Questions, blocking.


BLOCKING Rejecting information or ideas offered by another player. One of the most common problems experienced by new improvisers.


QUESTIONS Rephrase questions as a detailed statement (Answer your own question) Most questions are usually a sign of players overly relying on their scene partners to carry a scene. “What is that?” should be something like “That is a very exquisite flower you have there.” / “Where are we?”could be “It sure is cold in this apartment.”


PANTOMIME Use your space and define your environments, characters and actions. Avoid being a talking head. Physical activities and choices take us “out of our heads” and help keep us “IN THE MOMENT”


CONFLICT GOOD / ARGUING BAD The best comedy and drama both derive from great conflict. The worst (with rare exceptions) comes from bickering back and forth minute details. In Improvisational theater, arguing details becomes petty. Rather than demanding “I’m Right” try and solve the conflict.


BIG CHOICES / BIG VOICES and MAKE BIG MISTAKES Mantras of EIGHT IS NEVER ENOUGH producer, Walt Frasier. Take chances. Don’t wimp out. Don’t be afraid to fail. Big choices lead to forward moving scenes (AS long as they do not BLOCK your partner) Big mistakes lead to big rewards. Justified BIG MISTAKES lead to outrageous results.  Big mistakes are noticed and learned from. Not being afraid to make BIG MISTAKES leads to many more successful choices. Fall seven times and get up eight.


Accepting Embracing the offers made by other performers in order to advance the scene.

Advancing The process of moving the scene forwards.

Arc Scene has a beginning, middle and end

Ask-for The question asked of the audience in order to start a scene.

Beat  A unit of action in a scene. A scene is made up of a series of beats.

Breaking the routine Interrupting an action with another action in order to advance the scene.

Canceling Making previous action irrelevant. Once an action has been cancelled, it's as if it hadn't happened at all. Usually a bad idea.

Charm The quality that makes an audience enjoy watching a performer.

Commenting Stepping out of the reality of the scene by saying or doing something that refers to the fact that it's a scene being played. Also refers to "playing" an emotion rather than feeling it. Should be avoided, though used sparingly it can sometimes be effective.

Complementary offer An offer that meshes well with what's already gone before (and usually enhances it in some way).

Conflict Many (but not all!) scenes are about a conflict of some sort. If there's no conflict, the scene may still be truthful but somewhat dull.

Context The broader setting for the scene (political, social, etc).

Corpse To break up laughing while playing a scene. Usually not a good thing to do.

Denial See "blocking".

Driving Taking over a scene and not letting other performers influence its direction. Makes you an unpopular improvisor.

Endowing Assigning attributes to another performer's character.

Explore and heighten To take an idea and see where it leads, exploring its natrual consequences while simultaneously raising the stakes.

Extending Taking an idea and letting it become the central theme of the scene.

Focus The audience's attention should only be in one place at any given time; that place (or person) is the "focus" of the scene. If more than one thing is going on simultaneously, the focus is split. Experienced improvisors will smoothly share focus, less experienced improvisors often steal or reject focus.

Gagging Trying to make a joke or do something funny that doesn't flow naturally from the scene. Always a bad idea.

Gibberish A nonsense language.

Gossip Talking about things instead of doing them. Also, talking about things that are offstage or in the past or future.

Handle The premise for a scene or game.

Hedging Making small talk instead of engaging in action.

Information overload Introducing too much information into the scene, making it difficult or impossible to ever find a satisfying ending that resolves everything.

Instant trouble Making an offer that introduces a problem or conflict but that doesn't relate to the narrative of the scene prior to that point (see "Offer from space"). Example: Suddenly turning into a Werewolf.

Interactive Theatre Any form of theatre in which the audience is not a passive performer. Encompasses a range of different styles, ranging from "spot" improv to loosely-scripted stories such as murder mysteries or faux events (e.g. Tony and Tina's Wedding).

Masking Standing in a place where you can't be seen properly, or in such a way that you're hiding someone else or some important action. Should be avoided.

Mugging Making silly faces instead of reacting truthfully. Generally frowned upon.

Naming Identifying characters, objects, places and so forth in the scene.

Narrative The story told by a scene. Scenes should have a clear beginning, middle and end.

Never-Ending Story A story that continues to introduce so many new ideas, that it becomes impossible to tie the narrative together.

Objective The thing that a character in a scene is trying to achieve.

Offer Any dialog or action which advances the scene. Offers should be accepted.

Offer from space Dialog or action that is bizarre and that appears to come from nowhere.

Physicalization Turning intent into action and movement.

Point of Concentration What the scene is about.

Post-show Discussion of the show by the performers and crew after the performance, in order to identify problem areas that may have arisen as well as things that worked particularly well.

Plateau A period during which a scene is not advancing. Usually a bad thing.

Platform The who, what and where of a scene. The success of a scene often depends on having a solid platform.

Playlist The list of handles and/or ask-fors to be used in a show. Also called a "running order".

Pimping Playfully getting another performer to do something difficult or unpleasant which you probably wouldn't do yourself. Used sparingly, can be quite entertaining. Best strategry is to choose things the other performer does well.

Raising the stakes Making the events of the scene have greater consequences for the characters. One technique for advancing.

Reincorporation Bringing back an idea from earlier in the scene, or from a previous scene in the show, or even from a previous performance. Stand-up comedians refer to this as a "callback". Always fun, but not something to over-do.

Running order See "Playlist".

Setup Explaining the handle of the scene to the audience before the scene starts. Also involves doing an ask-for. The performer who does the setup usually shouldn't start off on stage in the scene.

Shelving Acknowledging an offer but not doing anything with it, with the intent of using it later. Of course, later never comes.

Sidetracking Finding activities to do, as to avoid doing what you established in the beginning. Example: Setting out to fix your car, but seeing the garage is a mess, you decide to clean it. You begin to clean and find an old photo album. You look at pictures, etc.

Space-object An object that's used in the scene but which doesn't really exist. A mimed object. In general, anything that doesn't support weight (like a chair) should be a space object.

Status A character's sense of self-worth. Many scenes are built around status transfers, in which one character's status drops while another's rises. Physical environments and objects also have status.

Stepping out Breaking the reality of the scene. See "Commenting".

Synthesis Combining two dissimilar ideas into one, such as hearing two suggestions from the audience and combining them into a single idea that gets used in the scene. Can be fun.

Talking heads A scene that involves a lot of standing (or worse yet, sitting) around talking rather than engaging in physical action.

Transformation Turning something into something else (one character into another, one object into another, one environment into another).

Tummeling Bantering with the audience during setups.

Uber-mime Overly elaborate mime that's so detailed as to be hard to follow.

Waffling Failing to make decisions. Talking about what you're going to do instead of doing it.

Walk-on (or Walk-through) The act of entering a scene, making a strong offer that advances the scene, and then exiting. Use sparingly (This being a special note to Mr Frasier).

Wanking Doing something cute and silly that makes the audience laugh but doesn't do anything to advance the scene. Very annoying for the other improvisors.

Wimping Accepting an offer but failing to act on it.


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